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上海洛基国际英语--------本科学、专科高级英语——重点语法剖析系列十

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上海洛基国际英语--------本科学、专科高级 英语——重点语法剖析系列十
And we could call the administrator if we were trapped in the lift. B: Our may easily in fluctuating in the earthquake. To avoid unnecessary confusion, we should keep the calm mind and master the information from the government and disaster prevention mechanism by the radio. Don’t trust any irresponsible gossip and take any irrational action. C: The car would be out of control during the shaking so that we can’t grasp the steering wheel. So we should park the car at a roadside as soon as possible, avoiding the crossroads.
4.as 与 which 用作关系代词的区别 (1)as 与 the same, such, so, as 等关联使用。如: As the forest goes, so goes its animal life. (2)as 和 which 都可以引导非限定性定语从句,但 as 在句中的位置比较灵活,可出现在句 首、句中、句末,而 which 只能出现在句末,尤其是当先行词是整个句子时。如: As is true in all institutions, juries are capable of making mistakes. As is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production. 常见的这类结构有:as has been said before, as has been mentioned above, as can be imagined, as is known to all, as has been announced, as can be seen from these figures, as might/could be expected, as is often the case, as has been pointed out, as often happens, as will be shown 等。 5.关系代词 that 与 which 用于引导定语从句的区别 (1)如果关系代词在从句中做宾语,用 that, which 都可以,而且可以省略; (2)先行词是不定代词 anything, nothing, little, all, everything 时,关系代词用 that; (3)先行词由形容词最高级或序数词修饰或由 next,last, only, very 修饰时,用 that; (4)非限定性定语从句只能用 which 引导; (5)关系代词前面如果有介词,只能用 which。 6.but 做关系代词,用于否定句,相当于 who…not, that…not 这个结构的特点是主句中常有否定词或含有否定意义的词。如: There are few teachers but know how to use a computer. There is no complicated problem but can be solved by a computer. 十四、复合句——名词性从句 一个句子起名词的作用,在句中做主语、宾语/介词宾语、表语、同位语,那么这个句子就 是名词性从句。 1.what/whatever 的用法 考生应把握:what 是关系代词,它起着引导从句并在从句中担当一个成分这两个作用。如: They lost their way in the forest, and what made matters worse was that night began to fall.

(what 既引导主语从句又在从句中做主语) Water will continue to be what it is today—next in importance to oxygen. (what 既引导表语从句又在从句中做表语) 2.whoever 和 whomever 的区别 whoever 和 whomever 相当于 anyone who,用主格与宾格取决于其在从句中做主语还是做宾 语。如: They always give the vacant seats to whoever comes first. (whoever 在从句中做主语) 3.有关同位语从句的问题 (1)下列名词常用做同位语的先行词: appeal, belief, conclusion, condition, conviction, doubt, evidence, fact, fear, feeling, ground(s),hope, idea, likelihood, message, news, opinion, order, plan, point, possibility, problem, promise,reply, proof, proposal, question, rumor, sign, story, suggestion, suspicion, theory, thought, truth, trouble, understanding, worry。 如:I have no doubt that he will overcome all his difficulties. One sign that you are making progress in an art such as painting or photography is that you begin to realize how much there is to learn. (2)引导词通常为 that, 但有时因名词内容的需要,也可由 whether 及连接副词 why, when, where,how 引导。that 不表示任何意义,其他词表示时间、地点、原因等。如: The problem, where I will have my college education, at home or abroad, remains untouched. The fact that she was a few minutes late is no reason for discharging her. (3)同位语从句有时与先行词隔开,注意识别。如: Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old. (4)同位语从句与定语从句的区别: ● 从意义上看,同位语从句说明名词的具体内容,定语从句则对名词进行限定、修饰; ● 从结构上看,同位语从句的引导词不在从句中充当任何语法成分,定语从句的引导词在 从句中必须充当一定的句子成分; ● 从先行词的词义特点看,同位语从句的先行词表达的是抽象内容,这类词数量有限,而 定语从句的先行词则没有任何限制。 4.whether 与 if 在引导名词性从句时的区别 (1)主语从句只能用 whether 引导; (2)whether 一般多用于宾语从句的肯定式,而 if 引导的从句可以有否定式; (3)whether or not 可以连在一起用,而 if or not 则不能,or not 只能放在句末; (4)whether 可以引导介词宾语从句,if 则不能; (5)宾语从句提至谓语前面时,只能用 whether 引导; (6)在 question, ask 后面一般只用 whether,question 的同位语从句也用 whether 引导; (7)后接不定式时,只能用 whether。 5.动词 believe, expect, fancy, imagine, suppose, think 后的宾语从句如为否定式,一 般将否定词转移到主句谓语上,这一点在翻译时要注意与汉语表达的区别 十五、复合句——副词性(状语)从句 副词在句中起状语作用,故如果起状语作用的部分为一个句子,那么该句便是副词性从句, 也称状语从句。状语从句可细分为:时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、目的、结果、比较、

方式等。 状语从句的测试重点为: 考查考生对主从句之间逻辑意义关系的把握, 看其是否能选择正确 的从属连词。 对于常见的状语从句和从属连词的常规用法,本书不想赘述,只谈谈常见从属连 词的特殊用法并提醒考生应注意的地方。 1.条件状语从句的常考知识点